CSA Road Safety: Walkers and Runners Encouraged to Take the Renovated Paths

By Loren Weiss - June 30, 2022

Trees Yellow DotSafety is one of our primary concerns at the CSA - M22 runs right through our grounds, and most roads are only wide enough for one car to drive along at a time. Those visiting the Assembly have always been encouraged to be cautious whether they’re driving or walking; but as the 2022 season rolls in, our Maintenance Department headed by Tom Mauer has worked tirelessly to make things a little safer for all of us through their renovation and reconstruction of Assembly walking paths.

The first step in their community-wide project was to make the walking path in the woods running along Alden Edwards Avenue more accessible and usable. The path starts directly next to the Meeting House and stretches all the way to the intersection between Alden Edwards Ave. and Winslow Way, creating a perfect path for runners, dog-walkers, and anyone else who previously would have stuck to the roads. Trees are marked with visible yellow markers to keep hikers from straying, and all plants and hazards (including poison ivy) have been cleared away. The trail is surrounded by recently planted native trees and luscious wonders of nature, making it a much more attractive walk alongside its practicality.

Mauer’s plan is to renovate all of the unpaved paths crisscrossing the Assembly, so walkers feel more comfortable off of the road - and away from vehicularPath through trees traffic. Among the paths slated for renovation are the Carver Crescent to South Shore trail and the stairway down the hill to Lake Michigan. His hopes are that by making these trails safer and more accessible for those on foot, we can keep Assembly patrons out of harm’s way while also giving them scenic, enjoyable trails to walk along. 

Road safety is especially important by M22 - and since construction started on June 27th, the CSA wants to encourage its members to be vigilant when crossing and otherwise navigating roads. These paths are a great way to do so, and we encourage all those who are curious or just feel like going for a walk to check out the beautiful trail by the Meeting House - and hopefully, as the project continues, even more trails that crop up across our scenic grounds.

Lions? No, Tigers? No, Bears? Yup!

By Alan Marble

Black bears are beginning to show a strong presence in our neighborhood at the CSA.  Last year a big boar (male) around 300 pounds or so began tearing up bird feeders and garbage bins in the late summer, fall, and well into winter.  He was active again in late winter after what appeared to be only a brief nap of about a month.  He hasn’t been around this spring - he is probably doing what boars do this time of year, which is look for female bears (sows) to breed. They will roam far and wide in this search for romance, or the ursine version of it.

bearscatonsandIn late March I found a generous pile of bear scat (poop) on the Crystal Lake beach. 

 

bearprintinsand

Lately, though, there have been several bears visiting the CSA. Tracks of a sow with what may be two or three young cubs have been noted north along the Lake Michigan beach, and the tracks of what appears to be another sow with a single, year-old cub, have been appearing north from the stairs.  

 

 

bearbuttinsand These bears left interesting butt marks in the sand as they slid down the low bluff just north of the Edmonds’ cottage.

The bears are almost certainly foraging on the abundance of small, fresh, dead alewives that are washing up on the Lake Michigan beach (alewives are small anadromous fish which will be another story to be related at a later date: if you are over 45 years old, you probably remember them). 

Why the uptick in bear activity?  They are highly adaptable to man and his civilization, are omnivores (more vegetable than mineral), live a long time and have been steadily growing in number over the past 30 years or so since the hunting of black bears went from unregulated in Michigan, to hunting seasons today which are based on modern sound science with lotteries for tags.  They have been expanding their range as well, appearing more and more often in central and even southern Michigan.

 Black bears are our only bears, and they are the smallest of their clan.  That said, “small” is a relative term, as a big old boar can top 600 pounds.  They breed in late spring, spend the next six months eating the bounty of nature and agriculture. They thrive in the orchards of Benzie County and make a serious nuisance of themselves in the fruit country, tearing off branches to nosh on apples, cherries and everything else fruit.  The primary element in their diet is plant material of all kinds, followed by insects, grubs, bees and honey. They are indiscriminate diners, eating every form of garbage from diapers to food wrappers and rancid food.  An unprotected garbage bag rings a bigtime dinner bell in a bear’s little brain. So does a well-stocked bird feeder that is within reach.

In early winter bears undergo a subtle metabolic change that leads them, especially the pregnant sows, to seek rudimentary shelter for “hibernation.”  The word is in quotation marks only because it is not a true hibernation, which is just shy of total shutdown of an animal’s bodily functions.  Sows go into hibernation earlier and longer than the boars, because their bodies are telling them to prepare to birth their tiny, hairless cubs.  These little fellers do not resemble the cubs you think of.  They nurse and sleep and develop a cub’s appearance before heading out with the sow into the world in late spring.  Boars are not powered by the same maternal instincts, and often resist slumber as long as there is ample forage (garbage, bird feeders, etc.). Climate change is also certainly playing a factor in black bear behavior.

What does all of this mean to those of us who have moved, unwittingly, perhaps, into black bear country?  We need to share the land, and be smart, and attentive.

The garbage bins which I helped invent are a piece of cake for a bear of any size.  We may have to rethink how we all handle our trash, because a bear that makes a steady diet of food supplied at your home will quickly become habituated to the process and will come to expect an easy meal.  Same goes for bird feeders (I will share my story on that in a future email). Anything and everything we can all do to remove a food attraction will pay off.  A bear that expects the free meal can be a real nuisance, and probably constitutes the single largest threat to our individual safety.

How does all of this affect us, our behavior, and our day-to-day existence? Other than strictly avoiding any feeding attraction for bears, very little.  Black bears will avoid human contact if given half a chance.  A sow with cubs will vacate the area you are in as soon as she smells you (crazy-good sense of smell), sees you (not so great sense), or hears you (ears like antennae).  She will either remove herself and her cubs at 30 mph (yup, 30 mph), or send the cubs up a tree while she retreats and observes.  A boar wants nothing to do with you and will almost certainly detect you long before you see him. 

Bears become quite nocturnal in their activities when pressured (like summertime at the CSA).  So, what do we do?  First, be aware of your surroundings as you walk Lover’s Lane or the CSA main drag, especially at dusk and dawn.  Put your phone away and listen and look at what is around you.  If you have company, chat while you walk; the best strategy is to give a bear (or any wildlife, for that matter) advance warning of your presence.  Listen to your surroundings…heck, you might learn something….and allow yourself to enjoy that you are a part (a small part, mind you), of a natural environment that continues to change and expand.

Ticks Make Spiders Look Positively Benevolent

By Alan Marble

Every summer you catch a story in the news about a horrific accident on US-2 or M-28 in the western UP in which a vehicle, inexplicably, veers across the center line and plows into the ditch or, worse yet, another vehicle.  Forensic examination of the people and vehicles involved reveal nothing as to the potential cause of the awful wreck.  The accident is written up as “operator error” and left to the archives.

However, I believe I know the cause of these accidents.  While this is pure speculation on my part, I have a pretty good idea as to who the culprit is.  It isn’t alcohol, or distracted driving while surfing the internet.  The culprit is the wood tick. After pulling a tick from one’s dog or one’s own neck while recreating outdoors in the woods, a person develops an instant sensitivity to any soft touch to the hairline or behind the ear.  Once you have encountered an engorged grape-like tick, full of your blood or that of your faithful furry friend, your sensitivity is then off the chart.  Nightmarish creatures, the ticks.  They live patiently awaiting a warm-blooded victim to come just close enough to clamber aboard.  They will ride for hours and even days in the cuff of your trousers or the fold of your sweater, creeping with a molasses-like pace towards contact with warm skin. Insidious is an adjective that comes to mind. 

woodtickWood tick, American dog tick, one and the same. There are actually five species of ticks which occur in Michigan, but the dog tick and the deer tick are the most common, and most likely to be encountered and to pass on infections.  They are not insects, but arachnids, more closely akin to spiders.  They have eight legs and hard shells, and live in wooded and grassy areas throughout the state.  They are becoming more common, it seems, and more widespread, perhaps in response to the changing climate.  They are active in May and on into November in our area.

Ticks lay around in the grass and woods most of the time, bingeing on Netflix while noshing on bonbons and popcorn, or some equivalent anyway.  A tick detects a potential host by sensing odor, moisture, movement and simple vibrations.  A comical scene occurs in my head, imagining a slow-moving tick trying to head a Labrador off at the pass. Once a tick selects its host, gets a head start and actually scrambles aboard, it selects a suitable location on said host, and begins to bury its mouthparts into the unsuspecting creature. 

If undetected by the host, the tick begins the awful process of engorging itself with its victim’s blood, in preparation of breeding and starting all over again.  There is something particularly odious about parasites; those freeloaders which are looking for much more than spare change are actually out for blood.  If the tick plays its cards right, it fills up and drops off and starts laying eggs.  Yuck.

At any stage in this frightful process a human can intervene.  If the tick is attached to a beloved human being (including oneself), there is a strong urge to yank it off without thought or ceremony.  If attached to one’s pet, the urgency is a bit tempered.  In either case, the secret is to use tweezers or one of the many tools specifically designed for the process to grasp or trap the head of the tick as close to the skin as possible and slowly . . . and I mean slowly . . . pull backwards with steady pressure to back the little SOB out, mouth parts and all. 

The next step is crucial.  If you have a propane torch, ignite the flame and roast the tick.  Lacking a torch, use a sledge hammer to crush its tough carapace (unless the tick is engorged with blood, in which case a serious gory mess results). Seriously, though, you want to ensure that this particular creature does not survive to haunt you, your pets or your house. 

Along with the prickly revulsion that accompanies a tick bite, there can be serious health consequences.  Ticks removed within 12 hours of attachment are highly unlikely to pass on diseases like Lyme disease or Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  In any instance of a tick attachment, the affected area needs to be cleaned, disinfected and watched for any sign of major inflammation or characteristic “bullseye”- like circles surrounding the site.  If in doubt, consult a physician. 

There is a vaccine available for dogs for Lyme disease, and I am told that a major pharmaceutical company is working on a vaccine for humans.  There are many topical drug applications for pets which work well in that the drug repels ticks and, if one stays on long enough to attach, the serum kills the attached tick. 

There is a world of good information available on ticks and tick-borne illness on the web.  Choose your sites for information carefully to ensure you are reading sound scientific and medical information. Click here to see our own Assembly Ecology Committee web page that has more information and resources.

Common sense prevails.  During tick season it pays to be vigilant with your loved ones and your furry friends.  A quick inspection of outer clothing at days’ end can pay off.  There are effective tick repellents available, but the ones which actually work are for application only to outer garments, and not directly to skin.  One trick that may actually work is to apply duct tape, sticky-side out, on trousers below the knee. Ticks seem to like to crawl uphill, and will be snared by the tape.  If nothing else, the tick(er) tape can indicate if you are indeed in an area with ticks. 

If there is an unsung natural hero through all of this, it is the unlovely opossum.  Our only native marsupial, these rat-tailed creatures mosey through life at an ungainly gait during twilight and darkness, eating pretty much everything organic which they encounter.  This includes ticks and tick eggs. One University of Illinois study indicated that an adult opossum may consume 5,000 ticks per season.  Makes me want to pick up one of those guys and plant a big smooch in thanks on its chin, except they always want to play dead when you approach, and that is a little off-putting to me. 

The Mystery of the CSA Horses

By Loren Weiss

HorsePicture2HorsePicture1

When you hear the word “bus”, a picture instantly appears in most people’s minds: a long vehicle filled with seats, not exactly fun to drive behind. Back in the very beginnings of the Congregational Summer Assembly, though, the bus was a horse-drawn cart that brought CSA members to and from Frankfort.

Horses had the utmost importance when it came to transportation in the early 1900’s since there were no automobiles yet. They played many roles at the CSA, the bus included; and although not much is known about them, an anecdote passed from person to person gives us a clue of how - and where - these horses lived.


Jane Way Baker first heard about the Lake Michigan stables from Carter Davidson years ago, but thought little of it; it was only this year that she remembered and retold the story as she’d heard it. Once upon a time, the space that is now the Lake Michigan tennis courts used to be the stables that housed some of CSA’s horses. These horses were said to be used to transport building materials up the hill for the construction of the Davidson cottage nearby.

Another clue about where more horses could have stayed is Equarry Rd, a street close to the woods tennis courts. The definition of an “equerry” is an officer who has charge over the stables, which points to the conclusion that there were more stables in that area at some point. The existence of these past stables is proof enough that horses played an essential role in Assembly transportation back before automobiles started arriving in the 1910’s.

Unfortunately, the Archives don’t have much more information about the stables, so any further knowledge would be greatly appreciated - any readers who know more can drop in at Pilgrim Place from 10-12 on Wednesdays or email Jane Cooper at

Meet TJ Lymenstull - CSA Pianist

By Loren Weiss

TJLymenstullAnyone who has attended a recent CSA Sunday Church Service has heard Dr. Thomas Lymenstull’s stunning piano skills - but his legacy as a musician spans far beyond church pieces. He has taught master classes in Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and China, to name a few, and has won plenty of both national and international competitions. But before we get into all that, here’s some backstory on the man behind the piano.

Dr. Lymenstull attended the Eastman School of Music for his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees alongside his Performer’s Certificate, and the University of Southern California for his Doctor of Musical Arts degree. His career has spanned nationwide, with notable names like the Kronos Quartet and the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra. He was also an Associate Professor at the University of Southern California and a Teaching Fellow of the USC Center for Excellence in Teaching. In 1998, he chose to stop teaching at the university and moved to northern Michigan to teach at the Interlochen Academy of the Arts, where he still teaches to this day.

For the upcoming Burrows-Getz concert on July 31st, Dr. Lymenstull will perform a set of 24 Preludes and Fugues which were dedicated to him by composer Lin Hua. The set was based on the 24 Styles (or Personalities) of Poetry by an ancient Chinese poet named Sikong Tu (837-908), and takes on the quest of describing the 24 different moods of poetry in various ways. Dr. Lymenstull’s knowledge and experience in Chinese piano music is highly impressive; he even received the Zumberge Faculty Research and Innovation Fellowship from USC in order to research music from China. His program is infused with a deep sense of Taoism and spirituality and will also be filled out with some Chopin and Rachmaninoff.

Dr. Lymenstull will perform his program at the 2021 Burrows-Getz Concert on Saturday, July 31st at 7:30 PM. The concert will be held in the Meeting House and is free and open to the public.

The Journey of the Meeting House Bell

By Loren Weiss

bell 2020Everything at the CSA has a story, whether it’s the streets we walk on or the sand we dig our toes into. The tolling of the Meeting House bell is such a constant that we almost don’t think to ask about it; but as with everything, behind that strong, musical ringing lies a fascinating history.

The 300-pound brass bell wasn’t originally created to hang in our grand meeting house. In fact, it was removed from an Illinois Central Railroad engine in Chicago, falling into the hands of James L. Taylor in 1960. He wanted to arrange for it to be donated to the CSA, but he couldn’t find a way to get it there - at least, not until John Hawley showed up.

In an anecdote that is still told around the CSA to this day, John Hawley put the gigantic bell into the back of his car, then drove all the way from Chicago to Pilgrim with it in his trunk. Nancy Hawley Morrison, his daughter, says that his car was a 1956 Buick that could just barely handle the weight! “[It] caused the rear shock absorbers to go into ‘max lifting’,” she recalled. “The result was that the headlights of the car aimed at the treetops throughout the entire trip north.” With some difficulty, he and the bell made it all of the way to Pilgrim safely, and the bell was then installed in the Meeting House and has resided there ever since.

 

russ and kid 1russ and kid 2The bell’s main purpose is to call Assembly members to the Sunday services. Russ Freeburg, who is 98 years old and a former usher, has been ringing the bell on Sundays for over 16 years. The job usually falls to one of the ushers, but since he’d been doing it for so long, there was a mutual agreement that he could continue even after he retired from his position as an usher. On Sundays, the bell rings twice: 20 minutes before 11:00, and five minutes before 11:00. “There’s always a rush at the end after the second bell,” Russ said, smiling. “Everyone comes at the same time.” The bell also rings for emergencies (i.e. a fire), and for weddings.

Though most of the original parts of the bell stayed intact over its time at the CSA, Russ and Ken Cox ran into a problem when they tried to ring the bell as a signal of the “end” of the pandemic. “The rope snapped sometime during the pandemic year… it finally wore out. It might’ve gone back to when the bell was installed,” Russ commented. Though the rope was later replaced with the rope from the old Crystal Lake swimming lines, the loss of the old rope shows just how long the Meeting House bell has served our community.

 

A History of the Crystal View Café

The Crystal View Cafe has become a staple of CSA life in the twenty-first century. It’s a place for families to meet for lunch, for kids to grab ice cream after an intense tennis match,and for the nostalgic to stare out at the view from its vantage point just above Crystal Lake. However, did you know that behind the cafe’s comforting, familiar exterior lies almost a century of history - all starting with a gas station.

To learn more click here to read the full history written by Communications Intern Loren Weiss

Meet Heather Lotzar - CSA’s New Youth Director

With the 2021 season comes changes both big and small, whether it’s to do with COVID-19 restrictions or staff. One of the welcome changes is the arrival of Heather Lotzar, CSA’s bright and bubbly new Youth Activities Director. Though things may be different this year, she hopes to bring a fresh new start to the youth program while still staying true to CSA’s strong sense of community.HLotzar

Heather is a fourth-generation CSAer hailing from Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has two kids, Bobby and Melissa, and two very energetic pugs whose enthusiasm only increased during quarantine! As for her plans for the youth program, Heather says she wants to do a mixture of activities that kids enjoyed in the past, but also keep her ears open for suggestions.

Weekly updates about Youth Activities for middle schoolers and high schoolers can be found on the Youth Board at the Assembly building, as well as on the CSA website. Activities usually take place twice a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. To send in your suggestions for things to do, fill out this Google form: https://bit.ly/3x7Au0g. Upcoming events include laser tag and a trip down the Platte River (dates to be announced). Pay close attention to the Youth Board to see what other kinds of fun activities Heather is planning!

Whistlers and Quillpigs

By Alan Marble                                                         8.14.20

Whistlers … whistlepigs … groundhogs … woodchucks.  Many names for the 3rd largest rodent in Michigan.  Made famous by the comical spectacle in Punxsutawney each February 2nd (and, reinforced by the clever comedy “Groundhog Day), woodchucks have been granted celebrity status in the United States.  Truth be told, they are lousy weather prognosticators, but still loved by everyone, except those folks who happen to share a residence with a family of woodchucks. 

groundhog 1170875 1920What they lack in meteorological skills, however, they make up with incredible digging and burrowing skills, with the same single-mindedness that beavers bring to stopping the flow of water.  Strictly herbivores, woodchucks love greens of all kinds and are especially fond of the same vegetables that many of us try to raise in gardens.  Hence, the rub.

They also love to excavate lawns, decorative berms and agricultural fence rows.  They can’t help themselves, you see.  “If you plant it, I will come and dig.”  “Field of Dreams” somehow left out the woodchuck parts in that film.  A woodchuck hole is a great place to sprain an ankle if one is not cautious about where to place a foot ... only thing worse, where they overlap, is a badger hole.  Speaking of the Wisconsin mascot, badgers are one of a small handful of predators which regularly prey upon woodchucks. If you think a woodchuck is a speedy excavator, you oughta watch a badger make the dirt fly as it digs into the turf for a well-fed ‘chuck that has grown fat on your garden.  Coyotes, bobcats, and foxes also take woodchucks when they can, and are the most common predators here in Benzie County. 

Like most rodents, woodchucks are considered “of least concern” environmentally because, well, they are rodents and are prolific and widespread, despite the current use of herbicides and pesticides.  Like the rest of the world’s rodents, they have paired incisor teeth that grow constantly (in the case of a woodchuck, up to a ¼ inch per week), yet are worn down by their constant gnawing.

The titular nickname, “whistler”, comes from the woodchuck’s penchant to stand upright and emit a high-pitched whistle to warn other members of the family of a potential threat.  This behavior has been immortalized by the BBC with its series “Walk on the Wild Side” (seriously, go to YouTube and kill an hour or so of these ingenious clips).

Luckily for all of us, and for the woodchucks of the world, they spend their winters in hibernation, out of our yards and relatively safe from predators (except those darn badgers, they just don’t quit.) 

Quillpigs

Depending on the source, there are 190 breeds of dogs in the United States.  I have spent a lot of time researching this issue and have a counter-proposal:  there are 2 breeds of dogs in the United States...indeed, probably in the world.  Here is my evidence:porcupines 957114 1280

Your dog is off-leash, attending to personal matters anywhere in the northern 3/4ths of Michigan.  You catch a glimpse of a slowly-shuffling creature at the base of a hollow oak tree and, a moment later, you hear Fido whine and your pup comes out of the shadows with a white goatee.  On close inspection, you find your dog has a chin-full of ivory porcupine quills and needs some attention.  (To avoid my penchant for taking off on tangent topics, I will refer to this outcome later.)

So, which of the two breeds of dogs is yours?  The first breed walks away from that encounter, shaking its head and thinking, “Holy cow, that smarts ... I’m never gonna do THAT again.”

The other breed shakes its head, licks its sore muzzle and whispers under its breath, “I’ll get that son of a gun NEXT time!”  And the next and the next, ad nauseum.

So how can anyone dislike a porcupine, AKA quillpig, with its Quaker-like aversion to violence?  A porkie shuffles through life at a leisurely pace, snacking on crabapples in the playground by the CSA Lake Michigan shore.  When a predator picks up the scent, be it coyote or bobcat or your trusty Labrador, the porkie might make a brief effort to flee or head up a tree.  But if caught out in the open, I figure the conversation goes something like this:

            “Uh, you might want to think this over. You might hurt me, heck, you might even kill me, but you are going to really regret it. Why don’t you just walk away-”

            “You look like dinner to me.”

            “Well, then, take your best shot.”

Porkies have a huge range, including the prairies of North Dakota where there is not a tree in sight. Here, they like the woods, the hollow oaks and maples for daytime dens, given away by the enormous cascade of years of droppings at the bases of the trees.  They also have a love of our cottages, especially the older ones with big spaces in their foundations, where they can enter and gnaw to their hearts’ content.  It is an unnerving sound, listening to the joists of your floorboards being gnawed upon at 3 o’clock in the morning.  Porkies can chew through a flat sheet of plywood, savoring the adhesive which binds the layers together. You can almost imagine the satisfied “burp.”

During the 60’s and 70’s the CSA Tuesday night dances drew people countywide.  The building  hopped up and down on its supports to the scratchy strains of “Gimme Some Lovin’” and “Brown Sugar.”  The managing director grew concerned about the future of the floor, so, instead of canceling the dances, he commissioned a force of teenagers to reinforce the joists.  He bought a handful of huge 10” by 10” beams and concrete blocks, and we crawled the length of the building and fed the beams in, inch by inch, finally raising them on the blocks and shimming them flush with the rest of the supports.  I was at the far end of the building, sucking in the fine silt that covers the ground, trying to wrestle the end of the last beam up on the block, when I saw movement left of my head.  In the feeble flashlight beam I saw the southbound end of a northbound porcupine, grunting gently and slowly wagging that awesome quill-studded tail, 3 or 4 feet away.  Finding my own inner superhuman strength, I tossed that beam in place and did the world-record crawdad backwards scuttle out from under the building.  Problem solved. 

Some porkie fun facts: The porcupine is the largest mammal at birth in Michigan when compared to its eventual full-grown size.  Almost a pound at birth, they are born fully quilled which harden shortly after hitting the ground.  (Breech births are prohibited by porcupine law.) A follow-up quiz ... which is the smallest mammal at birth in Michigan when compared to its eventual adult size?

Porcupines can not throw their quills.  Quills are highly-evolved hairs, up to 30,000 of them on an adult porcupine, each loosely attached to the animal.  Its most wicked weapon is its tail, covered in quills, each of them barbed, which it can whip in an instant and deliver a snootful of stings.  The quills, like our hair, continually grow and are replaced (well, not MY hair, but you know what I mean.)

Porcupine quills, if not removed, work their way deeper into the tissue. Hunting the prairies of North Dakota, a companion’s dog (example # 2 in the above discussion) took a serious bite out of a big porcupine.  We found a vet willing to re-open his shop for us.  He sedated the dog and performed the procedure.  He sent us on our way with further instructions.  “I left three quills  deep under the tongue … to remove them I would have had to keep her overnight.  Two days from now, spend a few moments stroking the skin in the soft folds under her chin. You’ll feel the quills poking through, and just grab them with pliers and pull them through.  She’ll be fine.” He was right, of course.

I’m happy to say that 4 of our 5 Labrador retrievers over the years have been Type 1 breeds.  Rooster, the kid at almost 2 years of age, has never had an encounter, and I hope to keep it that way.  In each incident, a dog emerged from cover with a white “beard” of quills under its chin.  Each time I pulled out my Leatherman tool, clipped off the end of the quills to deflate them, and then unceremoniously yanked them out.  Each time the dog looked in my eye as if to say, “Thanks, old stick, I’ll get back to hunting now.”

Managing problems with porkies and woodchucks is difficult at best.  Live-trapping either is really tough. Woodchucks eat everything green and vegetable, and seducing one into a live trap is an uphill battle.  Same is true with porkies - they mostly eat bark and willow scrub and chew incessantly on antlers and bones of animals which they find in the woods.  Poison is not a suitable solution to mammals of this size.  The best defense is a good offense, meaning take painstaking care to seal up the foundations of your home or cottage with chicken wire or hardware cloth.  If the problem is woodchucks burrowing under a deck or foundation, burying the first two feet of the wire can deter them from putting in the extra effort to get past. 

With woodchucks, the coyote and bobcat is your best fall-back position for resolving the issue.  The only predator known to routinely take porkies without undue injury is the fisher, the large weasel of the far north, and we don’t have them around here.  As is true with many wildlife “problems,” often the best solution is to roll with it and enjoy the panorama which these creatures provide.

Oh, the answer to the quiz: a black bear, born in the den in February, naked, blind, weighing only ounces, is the smallest Michigan mammal at birth compared to its eventual adult size. 

A Cosmologist’s View of the Northern Michigan Sky

Interview by Ginanne Brownell      7.22.2020

Even though he is a Princeton University-trained cosmologist (and now teaches there), William “Bill” Jones says he can still appreciate the Family on beachaesthetic beauty of the Northern Michigan night sky. Bill first came up to the CSA in 2001 after he started dating Molly Hood and he jokes that he’s still considered a “newbie.” Though the couple, who have two daughters, now live in Princeton, New Jersey, they still make the haul up to Benzie County every summer. This academic year Bill, who is an associate professor, will be taking on the added role as director of the undergraduate physics program at Princeton this academic year. Sitting at a social distance at one of the picnic tables at the Crystal View Bill talked about his research on cosmic microwave background radiation, why more and more people are finding physics pretty cool to learn about and what the stars in Michigan look like to him. EXCERPTS:

 

Ginanne Brownell: In very layman’s terms, can you tell me a bit about your research?

I consider myself a cosmologist, which is just a fancy word for run of the mill physicist who is studying things that are best learned by using the universe as a laboratory. You can imagine there's a class of things where it's best to just have a benchtop experiment. And you can run your experiment and you can compare the outcome of that experiment with your theory. But there's a whole class of theories that can't be tested through benchtop experiments, or even here on Earth. This is the case when the energies involved are too high or the scales are too big. For example, if you want to see how gravity behaves on the scale of the entire universe. There's not an experiment you can do on a lab bench to test this.  The only thing you can do is to use the universe itself as a laboratory, which is what we do when we make observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. 

Sorry, but I don’t even know what that means — my physics knowledge is very limited.

Okay, so in the big picture view of the universe the case observationally is that everything in space is expanding right now. And the implication of that, if it's expanding now at some earlier time, the whole place was a lot denser. And when you do that in a quantitative way, based on the measurements that we've made, you can trace that all the way back to the point where the whole universe was a really hot, dense environment. And to a good approximation, the whole universe is just hydrogen gas, like just what the sun is made of. That’s kind of interesting because if you push it back that far, and you look at it, it's all plasma at that point.  We know how plasmas behave so we can make that in a benchtop. And we very well understand the physics that determines plasmas. We know what would happen when we go from that state of the universe when it's all plasma to letting it cool.

How many years ago are we talking about here?

About 14 billion. Based on the measurements we've made we know that what would happen is it would go from that plasma material to a neutral hydrogen gas pretty quickly as it expands. Because it expands and it cools. We know that it would neutralize. And the implication of that is all that light that was bouncing around in that plasma, as it was a plasma as soon as it turns into a neutral gas, that light would just propagate, and there'd be nothing to interfere with it. That means that if we just build an instrument that is sensitive to that kind of light, and look anywhere, we should measure it.  We should find it.

Okay, tell me more.

Imagine going from a completely opaque place where if you're a light particle, and you're just scattering around all over the place, just like light microwave telescopehappens, then all of a sudden, everything becomes transparent. And so that light is what we refer to as the cosmic microwave background. Microwave just tells you what wavelength that light is. The prediction is that we should be able to measure this. And in fact, we can. And it's kind of cool, because since it hasn't really interacted with anything in 14 billion years, it's basically a snapshot of what the universe was like 14 billion years ago. And it's pristine, there's been nothing interfering with it. And when you're in any area of physics what you dream about is having a theory that makes a prediction. And it makes a prediction for something that you can measure and that the connection between the thing you measure and the thing you predict is as simple as possible. And that's the beauty about the CMB is that it's so simple, right? It's just a plasma, and then it becomes transparent. And it's a very simple theory.

Is this your theory then?

No, I'm an experimentalist. Smart people have sat down and come up with predictions about what one should measure if you can measure this stuff. We are sort of in the camp of those that go out and make those measurements and try to connect them to the theoretical prediction. The microwave background was first discovered in in the 1960’s. And in fact, the Nobel Prize last year was for that, and it went to Princeton’s Jim Peebles who made a lot of the predictions about what the microwave background can tell us.

Were you all very excited?

Super excited.  He's also the nicest guy in the world. He’s the Dumbledore [the headmaster of the Wizarding school in the Harry Potter books] of physics. Unfortunately, we didn't get to have a lot of the celebrations because of Covid.

There seems to be a greater interest and appreciation for physics lately. Like in the U.K. where I live Professor Brian Cox is a cosmologist who does hugely popular television programs on the universe.

There are a lot of people out there who are extremely well read in cosmology or physics generally. And are just very curious. But there are also a lot of people that for whatever reason, find it too intimidating.  I find that it bifurcates: there are those people who are like super engaged. And then there's other people are like, “Whoa, next! Sounds boring. I hated it in college and I still hate it.”

I didn’t want to talk about COVID but one of the things that I understand many scientists are worried about is that articles on research and experiments are not being peer-reviewed, which normally is the absolute norm and expectation in the science field in general. Is that scary?

This could backfire as people might [then] say, “Oh, well, the scientists don't know what they're talking about, they're totally wrong about the way it was transmitted.” It's like, “Well, they weren't wrong, they just said it’s likely this but we don't know.” And that's not satisfying. And it's easily interpreted as just being wrong and useless. Which is different than just being sort of correct within the error bar.

Moving to a happier subject, tell me a bit about the night sky here in Northern Michigan.

Well, here's the amazing thing. When we look from Michigan, we’ll see much the same sky that others will see from New York or Toronto or wherever, though you are a little bit further north.  But it's more or less the same stars. If you counted all the stars you could see you might get a couple thousand. And all the stars that we see are just in a relatively enclosed area around our sun. If you imagine the galaxy is like extra-large pizza, we are a piece of pepperoni about two thirds of the way out. And if you imagine all the stars that we can see, they're just a little cluster around us. Now that's not to say that they aren't super far away. All the stars that we see are just mind bogglingly far away from us. But that just tells you how big the pizza is. Most of my research has to do with not seeing what's in our galaxy, it’s of trying to look out of our galaxy, away from all of our stars, to try and see the more distant objects behind it.

Actors will say it’s hard for them to watch plays without critiquing the acting, and chefs will say they don’t like to eat out because they are analysing the food and ingredients too much. As a cosmologist, can you ever just look at the night sky here at the CSA and enjoy it?

Absolutely. It’s gorgeous.  The greatest thing, in my opinion about astrophysics is just the variety of absolutely beautiful phenomena that are out there. And you can take a picture of a planetary nebula, which, you know, there's a lot of interesting physics going on there. But they're also just gorgeous. It's like looking at a really intricate flower and it's just another one of nature's creations and that’s absolutely beautiful.

sky viewed from telescope

Important Message from the Board of Trustees

By Alan Marble  7.18.2020

The Congregational Summer Assembly needs your help. In this extraordinary summer, two issues continue to bubble up to the forefront. Both issues need the immediate attention and assistance of everyone in the community.
THE CRYSTAL LAKE FIRE PIT:

csafb030Firepit 107462947 10157186883471128 8973346970286951389 oStarted several years ago with the driving force of the Walton family to honor their parents, the fire pit below the Crystal View was developed with the approval of the CSA Board. It provides an ideal spot for a family outing or a (physically distanced) meeting of CSA friends. The attractiveness of the fire pit has brought it some unwelcome attention which threatens its future. Loud gatherings after 11 p.m., prohibited use of alcohol on CSA common property, and acts of vandalism have compelled the Board of Trustees to formulate a make-or-break plan for its use. 
 
To accomplish this, we need everyone’s help.

  • CSA quiet hours, from 11 p.m. until 8 a.m., must be observed. You must leave the fire pit at 11 p.m.
  • At the same time, everyone must be aware of, and observe, the prohibition of the use of alcohol, drugs, and marijuana on CSA common grounds.
  • Parents of teens please talk with your children to reinforce the need for strict compliance with these rules for use of the firepit. 

As a community, we must use the fire pit safely and courteously.
 
A motion-sensor light was installed this week that will be activated by movement after 11 p.m. each night. Hopefully, this deterrent to after-hours activity will not be needed if enough CSA folks embrace the importance of this issue and the steps being taken to resolve the issue. Signs will be placed that the motion light will be activated during quiet hours.

If the motion-sensor light is damaged by vandalism, or if the rules about noise after 11 pm or use of prohibited substances are not followed, the fire pit will be shut down.

 

THE DUNES AT LAKE MICHIGAN CONTINUE TO ERODE:

Lake Michigan BluffHelp save our dunes! The Board of Trustees is making the plea to refrain from climbing our Lake Michigan dunes.  

  • Each time a person or dog makes the round-trip to the water’s edge, another shovel-full or two is pushed downhill because of the effort in climbing. 
  • There is a serious threat of harm to the persons climbing the dunes. Layers of clay and gravel cling vertically to the slope and, like an avalanche in the mountains, may be triggered to collapse which could trap or suffocate a child.
  • Continued erosion may make it impossible to climb up from the lakeshore.
  • Signs will be posted to encourage compliance.

Please stay off the Lake Michigan dunes...for your sake, and for the sake of the future of our CSA bluff.